Abstract art is also called Non Objective Art or Non Representational Art.
It is considered as one of the “purest form of art” .
This type of art does not attempt to represent an accurate depiction of a visual reality .It uses various shapes, colours, forms and gestural marks to achieve its effect.
Abstract art is based on object, figure or landscape, where forms have simplified .
Abstract art is often seen as carrying a moral dimension. It can be seen to stand for virtues such as order, purity, simplicity and spirituality in that.
During the late 19th and early 20th centuries , abstract paintings have emerged as a departure from Classical and traditional academic painting in Europe.
Before that so many popular artists have painted following the methods of classical realism, which used realistic perspective, shading, and other techniques so as to make historical scenes and material .
At the turn of the 20th century many artists have been against the formal teachings .They have begun to make a new style of art . This new way of painting have considered as “pure art”.
Abstract artists have experimented with new techniques like using vivid and arbitrary colors, reconstructing shapes, and rejecting realistic three-dimensional perspective.
Abstract art has not flourished between World Wars I and II. World War 1 took place between 28 th July 1914 to 11th November 1918.World War 2 took place between 1st Sep 1939 to 2nd Sep 1945.
But after war II (after 1945) , Abstract Expressionism has emerged and has had wide influence by an active American school of abstract painting.
Since 1950, Abstract Art has been accepted and became widely practiced approach within European and American painting and sculpture.
Here ,I have described about some famous artists of Abstract Art.
Some Popular Abstract Artists.
1. Henri Matisse
Henri Marisse was born on 31st December in 1869 in France.
He died on 3rd November 1954 in France at the age of 84 .
He was known for Painting,Printmaking,Sculpture,Drawing and Collage Art.
Matisse was regarded, alongside Picasso and Marcel Duchamp.
He was known as one of the three artists who helped to define the revolutionary developments in the plastic arts in 20th century,
He became a leading figure for his mastery of the expressive language of colour and drawing.
2. Piet Mondrian
Piet Mondrian was born on 7th March in 1872 in Netherlands.
He died on 1st February in 1944,at the age of 71.
He was known for being one of the founders of the De Stijl. De Stijl was incorporated an art movement .
That art movement worked around abstract works. The new art forms was introduced to the world in the early 20th century.
The movement of abstract art was also based on the reductive theory,which took a larger scale image, and brought it to life on the canvas.Its effect was also on architectural works, sculpture forms and graphic arts.
3. Mark Rothko
Mark Rothko was born on 25th September in 1903 in Latvia.
He died on 25th February in 1970, at the age of 66.
Before he developed his own signature style, he moved through different styles in his artistic career including Surrealism .
Rothko was known for a pioneer of Color Field painting, a style within Abstract Expressionism in which color would be the main subject .
He was regarded as one of the leading abstract artists. Inspite of that he insisted that he was not an abstractionist .
His primary focus was discovering mysticism and esoteric aspects of colors and its combinations. Painting was a method of spiritual expression for Rothko and many viewers have broken down in tears in front of his works.
Despite his statement which was “he was not an abstractionist “, the contribution of Rothko to Abstract Expressionism was monumental.
4. Willem De Kooning
Willem De Kooning was born on 24th April in 1904 in Netherlands.
He died on 19th March in 1997, at the age of 92.
Willem de Kooning was one of the most prominent Abstract Expressionists .
He was specialized in distorting figure painting to the level of abstraction and blending various styles to create impressive canvases.
He also created many sculptures in his post career. De Kooning’s paintings were popular for record sell prices. His “Woman III “was sold for $137.5 million in 2006. His “Interchange” was sold for $300 million in July 2017.
Woman I, Easter Monday, Attic and Excavation were his notable work.
He was awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom (1964), National Medal of Arts (1986) and Praemium Imperiale (1989)
5. Wassily Kandinsky
Wassily Kandinsky was born on 16th December in 1866 in Russian Empire.
He died on 13th December in 1944, at the age of 77
He was initially a teacher of law and economics,.
Wassily Kandinsky left his promising career to pursue his interests in art.
He became popular in the 1910s as one of the leading figures in modern art.
Kandinsky was a pioneer of abstract art .
Beside a painter , Kandinsky was also a prominent art theorist .His books had an enormous and profound influence on future artists.
He was popular for his tremendous contribution in moving the art world far away from representational traditions towards abstraction.
Wassily Kandinsky was considered by many as the “Father of Abstract Art”.
6. Jackson Pollock
Jackson Pollock was born on 28th January in 1912 in U.S.
He died on 11th August in 1956 ,at the age of 44.
Jackson Pollock was the most renowned practitioner of drip painting to the extent that ,he was dubbed “Jack the Dripper” by TIME magazine.
Pollock’s technique of pouring and dripping paint became popular in the term action painting,. It was a method in which the physical act of painting itself was an essential aspect of the finished work.
His most famous work was Blue Poles.It was was purchased by the National Gallery of Australia in 1973 for A$1.3 million.
His another famous painting was “No.5”.It was sold in May 2006 for $140 million.
7. Helen Frankenthaler
Helen Frankenthaler was born on 12th December in 1928 in United States.
She died on 27th December in 2011in U.S., at the age of 83.
She was known for her abstract painting.
She was a major contributor to the history of postwar American painting.
Frankenthaler began exhibiting her abstract paintings in contemporary museums and galleries in the early 1950s.
She was included in Post-Painterly Abstraction exhibition in the 1964 .
Post Painterly Abstraction was curated by Clement Greenberg and that introduced a newer generation of abstract painting which was known as Color Field.
She was influenced by Greenberg, Hans Hofmann, and Jackson Pollock’s paintings. Her work had the subject of several retrospective exhibitions, including a 1989 retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City.
She was awarded the National Medal of Arts in 2001.
Helen Frankenthaler had a home and studio in Darien, Connecticut.
8. Robert Motherwell
Robert Motherwell was born on 24th January in 1915 in U.S.
He died on 16th July in 1991,at the age of 76.
He was rained in philosophy.
Motherwell was regarded as among the most articulate of the abstract expressionist painters.
He was known for his series of abstract paintings and prints which touched on political, philosophical and literary themes, such as the Elegies to the Spanish Republic.
He also was known for Printmaking.
9. Robert Delaunay
Robert Delaunay was born on 12th April in 1885 in France.
He died on 25th October in 1941, at the age of 56 in France.
At the beginning Robert Delaunay was Neo-Impressionist . He moved towards abstraction later.
He made Simultaneous Windows in 1912. That was his last semi figurative work before he began experimenting with complete Abstract.
His most important contribution to abstract art was co-founding the Orphism art movement.It was an offshoot of Cubism which focused on pure abstraction and bright colors.
The art movement was to dispense recognizable subject matter and then played a key role in the development of abstract art.
His abstract paintings were based on the optical characteristics of brilliant colors .Those paintings were so dynamic and functioned as the form. Delaunay was ranked among the most influential abstract artists for being the leader and most famous figure of Orphism.
10. VICTOR VASARELY
Victor Vasarely was born on 9th April in Hungary.
He died on 15th March in 1997 in France.
He initially worked as a graphic designer and a poster artist.
Among the most influential movements in abstract art,Victor Vasarely eventually became one of the founders and the most famous figure of the Op art movement.
Op art was not only influenced the art world. It also spread to other areas including architecture, computer aided design, animation and fashion.
Vasarely’s painting Zebra (1937) was regarded one of the earliest examples of OP art. He created some of the movement’s most renowned works in both painting and sculpture.
Victor Vasarely was known as the “Father of Op Art”.